DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22516/25007440.56

Una mirada actual a la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea

Andrea Holguín Cardona, Juan José Hurtado Guerra, Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez

Resumen


La peritonitis bacteriana espontánea (PBE) es una de las principales complicaciones de los pacientes cirróti- cos con ascitis y tiene gran importancia por las altas tasas de mortalidad y de recurrencia que presenta y que pueden mejorar considerablemente si se tiene un diagnóstico oportuno y se brinda el tratamiento óptimo. Es de tener en cuenta que, incluso en pacientes asintomáticos, se ha documentado una alta prevalencia de PBE. La profilaxis primaria y secundaria se constituye como una medida de gran relevancia al mejorar la sobrevida y disminuir las tasas de incidencia o recurrencia; sin embargo, deben ser aplicadas con mucha rigurosidad y con un buen seguimiento de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a las mismas con el fin de prevenir la aparición de resistencia antibiótica. Algunos de los factores determinantes para someter a un paciente a profilaxis antibiótica son: episodio previo de PBE, pacientes con hemorragia de tracto digestivo y pacientes con evidencia de disfunción hepática dada por bajas concentraciones de proteínas en líquido ascítico e hiperbilirrubinemia. Con el uso de las principales bases de datos biomédicas (PubMed, ClinicalKey, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus y OVID) se hizo una revisión de la literatura médica referente a la PBE, publicada tanto en español como en inglés, durante los últimos 5 años; dentro de esta se encontraron referencias bibliográficas muy valiosas, las cuales también fueron consultadas. Se evidenció cómo hay pocas publicaciones tanto a nivel latinoamericano como colombiano, dentro de las cuales se referencian algunas escritas por el mismo autor o por su grupo de trabajo. 


Palabras clave


Peritonitis; peritonitis bacteriana espontánea; translocación bacteriana; cirrosis; ascitis

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Referencias


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