DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22516/25007440.242

Neoplasias quísticas pancreáticas, enfoque diagnóstico

Raquel Herranz Pérez, Felipe de la Morena López, Cecilio Santander Vaquero

Resumen


Los quistes pancreáticos comprenden una amplia variedad de lesiones cada vez más frecuentemente diagnosticadas debido tanto al empleo creciente de técnicas de imagen como al envejecimiento de la población. Entre ellas, las neoplasias quísticas mucinosas son especialmente relevantes por su potencial de malignización. Aunque la ecografía abdominal, la tomografía axial computarizada y la resonancia magnética suelen ser las pruebas diagnósticas de imagen iniciales, muchas veces los hallazgos morfológicos no son suficientes para su diferenciación. La ecoendoscopia se ha convertido en la mejor prueba para su caracterización ya que permite realizar estudio morfológico y también del líquido obtenido mediante punción, aunque su precisión diagnóstica para la detección de quistes de estirpe mucinosa y de malignidad sigue siendo baja. La importancia de la adecuada caracterización radica tanto en la detección precoz de las lesiones preneoplásicas y malignas como en evitar cirugías innecesarias. La indicación de ecoendoscopia, de tratamiento quirúrgico y de seguimiento varía entre las distintas guías de práctica clínica estando actualmente en duda especialmente el tratamiento y seguimiento de las neoplasias quísticas mucinosas papilares intraductales de rama lateral por el menor riesgo de degeneración y su asociación con el cáncer de páncreas.


Palabras clave


Neoplasias quísticas pancreáticas; neoplasia quística mucinosa; análisis molecular; ecoendoscopia

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Referencias


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