Biopsia hepática en la patología del trasplante, período postrasplante temprano, enfoque dirigido al diagnóstico histopatológico y su correlación clínicopatológica

  • Rocío del Pilar López Panqueva

Resumen

La biopsia hepática de los aloinjertos sigue siendo considerada el estándar de oro y juega un papel importante e integral en la interpretación y explicación de los cambios que puedan ocurrir en respuesta a alteraciones en las pruebas de la función o bioquímica hepática, anomalías funcionales o alteración en las imágenes diagnósticas, las cuales pueden, o no, ir acompañadas de síntomas. También es útil en el seguimiento o biopsias por protocolo (1-3). La evaluación de biopsias, después del trasplante, puede ser difícil debido a que es muy amplio el espectro de las complicaciones que pueden presentarse en el período postrasplante; más aún, cuando muchas de ellas necesitan un diagnóstico y tratamiento inmediato. La patología más frecuente es el rechazo agudo. Sin embargo, también pueden observarse cambios de perfusión/reperfusión, alteraciones funcionales, recidiva de enfermedad de base, lesión de la vía biliar, lesiones vasculares, infecciones oportunistas, patologías de novo, como la hepatitis autoinmune, hepatitis crónica idiopática postrasplante, toxicidad farmacológica o tumores, entre otras patologías (4). En este artículo relacionado con la patología del trasplante hepático se tratarán las patologías más frecuentes, no quirúrgicas, en el período postrasplante temprano, con un enfoque histopatológico dirigido a las dificultades y controversias para una adecuada correlación clínico-patológica. 

Biografía del autor/a

Rocío del Pilar López Panqueva
Patóloga, Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa fe de Bogotá, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Los Andes. 

Citas

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Publicado
2017-02-15
Sección
Educación Continuada de Hepatopatología