Hepatotoxicidad: patrón colestásico inducido por fármacos

  • Laura Morales Maya Universidad de Antioquia
  • Natalia Vélez López Universidad de Antioquia
  • Octavio Muñoz Maya Hospital Palo Tobón Uribe; Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Colestasis, enfermedad hepática inducida por medicamentos, hepatopatía, medicamentos

Resumen

La enfermedad hepática inducida por fármacos (DILI) es una condición poco frecuente; sin embargo, explica el 40%-50% de las insuficiencias hepáticas agudas. Su patrón es colestásico en un 20%-40%, causado por la inhibición de los transportadores que regulan la síntesis biliar; esta reducción en la actividad es mediada directa o indirectamente por los medicamentos y sus metabolitos, por polimorfismos genéticos y otros factores de riesgo del paciente. Sus manifestaciones van desde las alteraciones bioquímicas en ausencia de síntomas, hasta la insuficiencia hepática aguda y el daño hepático crónico. Aunque no existe un examen o marcador que indique el diagnóstico absoluto de la enfermedad, se han desarrollado escalas y algoritmos que permiten valorar la probabilidad de DILI colestásica, y otras pruebas que por su complejidad y costo no son de uso rutinario. Por lo anterior, es principalmente un diagnóstico de exclusión basado en evidencia circunstancial.El patrón colestásico de DILI presenta una mejor tasa de supervivencia general pero un mayor riesgo de desarrollo de enfermedad hepática crónica. En la mayoría de los casos, el cuadro del paciente mejora con el retiro del medicamento responsable del daño; la hemodiálisis y el trasplante deben considerarse solo para casos selectos. No se ha probado la eficacia de otras terapias.En este artículo se profundizará en la fisiopatología, la presentación clínica, bioquímica e histopatológica, además del diagnóstico, manejo y pronóstico de este tipo de colestasis.

Citas

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Publicado
2016-03-30
Sección
Revisión de tema